Advanced Language Construction
The sequel to the Language development Kit: examine more approximately built languages and approximately linguistics: good judgment, pidgins and creoles, signal languages, the linguistic existence cycle, and a meaty step by step survey of morphosyntax.
Create unique and believable languages for RPGs, myth and technology fiction, videos, or video games... or simply research extra approximately how languages paintings with a similar actual but enjoyable technique because the unique LCK.
Verb; so much are an analogous signal because the corresponding adjective. Classifiers as locatives ASL has a suite of classifiers, symptoms representing a category of gadgets of a selected sort or form— examine the degree phrases of Mandarin (p. 160). those can be utilized in an significantly expressive development, that are schematized as
Clauses with a emerging intonation; for example, Amele: emerging [Mel mala heje on] mel heu busali nu-i-a. [boy poultry illicit take.3s.subj-remote.past] [boy that run.away go-3s.subj-today’s.past] The boy that stole the poultry ran away. this is performed in colloquial English: the woman I informed you approximately? She’s doing a gig at Avalon this night. (But this simply re-uses query intonation; ASL’s q is kind of diversified from r.) The r sign by myself can go away a transitive sentence ambiguous: r puppy CHASE.
Indexing: r DOGl BITEl to r CATr COMEr domestic The cat the puppy bit got here domestic. puppy is signed at the left aspect of the physique, cat at the correct. chew contains a left to correct circulation. Come is signed beginning at the correct, signaling that it’s the cat instead of the puppy which got here domestic. a 3rd strategy is to accentuate the r marker— the eyebrows are raised extra, the lip reduced in size extra tensely, and a head nod could be additional. this can be marked i under: i r puppy chunk CAT COME domestic The cat the puppy bit.
country: Qhôk ktuphuq. homicide ktuvok The ktuvok intends to homicide anyone. The causer (normally the 3rd point) is non-compulsory: Têm miphuq phishd nduggsh. broke window get away prisoner The prisoner, aspiring to break out, broke the window. The experiencer can’t be passed over; if it’s unknown, the anaphor phim ‘something’ needs to be provided: Têm (phim/*Ø) xib phishd nduggsh. broke (something/Ø) hand break out prisoner The prisoner, desiring to get away, broke anything together with his hand. (Note the.
167 T/V pronouns, 106 Takelma, 154 Tamil, 124, 129, 133, 152 aim genders, one hundred thirty Tarzan, eighty five telicity, 89, 139 tetravalent verbs, one hundred ninety the, forty six, 88 Thomason, Sarah gray, eighty three Thompson, Sandra, 156 Tigre, 156 timitive, a hundred and fifty Tiwa, Southern, 184 Todd, Loreto, eighty three Tok Pisin, seventy six, 79–81, 133 Tolkien, J.R.R., 108, 230, 252 Tomasello, Michael, 86–94 subject, 122, 142, 148, 212 topic-first, 157 conventional characters, sixty six adjustments, ninety four, 122 transitive, 88, 116, 173, one hundred seventy five, 193 transitive.