Circum-Baltic Languages: Volume 1: Past and Present (Studies in Language Companion Series)
the realm round the Baltic Sea has for millennia been a meeting-place for individuals of alternative origins. one of the circum-Baltic languages, we discover 3 significant branches of Indo-European ― Baltic, Germanic, and Slavic, the Baltic-Finnic languages from the Uralic phylum and several other others. The circum-Baltic quarter is a perfect position to review areal and make contact with phenomena in languages. the current set of 2 volumes examine the circum-Baltic languages from a typological, areal and historic viewpoint, attempting to relate the problematic styles of similarities and dissimilarities to the societal heritage. In quantity I, surveys of dialect components and language teams endure witness to the big linguistic variety within the quarter with exact recognition to much less recognized languages and language types and their contacts.
[gji.¢vjæ˜k] [«sko˜lji.tji] [«sko˜lji.tu.] ‘live’ (inf) ‘live’ (imp.2sg) ‘lend’ (inf) ‘lend’ (cond.3) 184.108.40.206 within the north-western a part of the Kaunas dialect staff the twin remains to be used as a dwelling inﬂectional shape, while within the ultimate Aukštaitian dialects it has nearly long gone out of use (in Žemaitian, it's also retained in verbs): SL WA (Kaunas) m«es abù sùkame we:1pl both:masc turn:pres.1pl ‘we two/both flip’ mùdu sùkava we:1du turn:pres.1du jÖus abù sùkate you:2pl both:masc.
continues to be purely on north Öland are the conserved consonant clusters mb, nd and ld that are additionally present in different elements of the Baltic zone comparable to the middle jap quarter, Gotland and the Trans-Baltic quarter (Hallberg 1996). Swedish dialects round the Baltic Sea 143 Northern. North of the japanese quarter alongside the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia we ﬁnd the Northern dialects (norrländska, nordsvenska). additional inland, the dialects of Jämtland have many similarities to Norwegian dialects, and the dialects of.
Doing the milking’. The passive voice, as expressed by way of the suﬃxes -s (present) and -st (past), “appears to be significantly extra common than in ordinary Swedish ordinary language”, says Danell (p. 250). except the normal passive suﬃxes, a periphrastic passive has constructed consisting both of the auxiliaries hava ‘to have’ or få ‘to get’ and the passive current inﬁnitive (nothing is expounded approximately what governs the alternative among hava and få). Examples: vil du håva bo‰a˘as häldor kambas? will.
‘here is hot within’ (standard Swedish: ‘det är varmt härinne’). it can be famous in passing that the adverb där ‘there’ usually capabilities as formal topic in southern Sweden (see part 2). Geocentric house. within the many examples in Danell (1905–34) there's a few proof of a so-called geocentric spatial method getting used (cf. Levinson 1992) in Estonian Swedish along a extra relative one. There looks widespread use of the geographically ﬁxed cardinal instructions (north, east, west, south).
Complementary distribution: the uvular is used word-initially and in geminates, the apical in all different situations (Wessén 1969: 16). Swedish dialects round the Baltic Sea 7. yet quoting G. Sjöstedt (no date given), Wessén notes that the plurals are most sensible conserved (“most universal in real speech”) in southern and heart Halland, southwestern Småland, northeastern Scania and Lister (1969: 20, ftn. 1). eight. Cf. Wessén’s northwest-southeast border line for plenty of “important” positive factors (Wessén 1969:72–73);.