For the Soul of France: Culture Wars in the Age of Dreyfus
In the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian battle of 1870–71, a defeated and humiliated France break up into cultural factions that ranged from those that embraced modernity to people who championed the recovery of throne and altar. This polarization—to which such iconic monuments because the Sacre-Coeur and the Eiffel Tower endure witness—intensified with a succession of grave occasions over the subsequent a long time: the crash of an funding financial institution based to increase Catholic pursuits; the failure of the Panama Canal corporation; the fraudulent cost of treason introduced opposed to a Jewish officer, Alfred Dreyfus, which led to a civil battle among his zealous supporters and fanatical antagonists.
In this very good reconsideration of what fostered the increase of fascism and anti-Semitism in twentieth-century Europe, Frederick Brown chronicles the serious fight for the soul of a state, and exhibits how France’s deep fractures resulted in its give up to Hitler’s armies in 1940.
October 29, 1894. “Whereas Judas”: l. a. Croix, November 2, 1894. “Along along with his large knowledge”: Bredin, p. 89. “The Dreyfus affair sticks”: LAffaire telle que je l’ai vécue, Mathieu Dreyfus. Paris: Grasset, 1978, p. 35. “Someone within the ministry”: Bredin, p. ninety three. “the so much urgent”: see Reinach, vol. I, p. 276, and LAffaire sans Dreyfus, Marcel Thomas. Paris: Fayard, 1961, p. 173. “there are a few secrets”: Reinach, vol. I, p. 417. “He has no relative”: Bredin, p. a hundred. “The nation.
Of error used to be the roar of a beleaguered Vatican.* Witnesses describe Pius in his inner most chapel, praying for hours on finish. At conflict with a global whose rulers he may well now not top, he got here more and more to think that his judgements have been divinely encouraged, or needed to be understood as such. In Quanta Cura he had claimed plenary strength “conferred at the Sovereign Pontiff by means of Jesus Christ” to steer and supervise “the common Church.” 5 years later, in 1869, a Vatican Council elaborately staged by means of.
Spire contesting the Sacré-Coeur’s command of the sky over Paris. GUSTAVE EIFFEL, who might have ranked excessive between applicants for the mandarinate ruling France if the social theorist Henri de Saint-Simon’s excellent of a systematic oligarchy had ever been discovered, used to be bred to the jobs of engineer and entrepreneur by way of an formidable relatives. His father, Alexandre, had joined the Grande Armée in 1811 at age 16 and fought opposed to the Austrians in Northern Italy. Wounded two times, he again to box.
Had certainly emigrated from Westphalia within the past due 17th century, settled in Paris, and adjusted his identify to that of a Westphalian mountain variety, the Eifel, including a moment “f.” there has been not anything remotely Jewish in Gustave’s relations historical past, even though. Nor have been the others during this indictment Jewish. will probably be recalled that Loew, the Alsatian Protestant prosecutor of Eugène Bontoux, had likewise been Judaized. Biez fees right here from interview within which Eiffel explains that the tower.
Have ten titanic locks able to elevating vessels above the flood line of the Rio Chagres. It used to be to be navigable by means of June 1890. “The self assurance that you just convey in me via inviting my collaboration isn't really misplaced,” Eiffel wrote to de Lesseps on November 15. “Rest guaranteed that I shall commit myself unstintingly to a piece on whose good fortune hinge the honour and fabric curiosity of France.” What profited France profited Eiffel. His collaboration was once dearly obtained, however it provided wish, and ahead of long,.