Masters of the Word: How Media Shaped History
William J. Bernstein
Bernstein explains how new verbal exchange applied sciences and particularly our entry to them, impacted human society. Writing was once born hundreds of thousands of years in the past in Mesopotamia. Spreading to Sumer, after which Egypt, this progressive software allowed rulers to increase their keep watch over all over, giving upward thrust to the world’s first empires. while Phoenician investors took their alphabet to Greece, literacy’s first increase resulted in the delivery of drama and democracy. In Rome, it helped spell the downfall of the Republic. Later, medieval scriptoria and vernacular bibles gave upward thrust to spiritual dissent, and with the mix of more affordable paper and Gutenberg’s printing press, the fuse of Reformation used to be lit.
The commercial Revolution introduced the telegraph and the steam pushed printing press, permitting info to maneuver quicker than ever prior to and to arrive an excellent better viewers. yet besides radio and tv, those new applied sciences have been extra simply exploited by means of the strong, as obvious in Germany, the Soviet Union, even Rwanda, the place radio incited genocide. With the increase of carbon duplicates (Russian samizdat), photocopying (the Pentagon Papers), the net, social media and mobile phones (the contemporary Arab Spring) extra humans have entry to communications, making the area extra attached than ever earlier than.
In Masters of the Word, Bernstein masterfully publications the reader throughout the great background of communications, illustrating each one step with colourful tales and anecdotes. it is a eye-catching, enlightening ebook, one who will swap how you examine expertise, background, and gear.
Ed., The Bible in its old and English models (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940). Roux, Georges, historic Iraq (New York: Penguin Books, 1966). Rubenstein, Joshua, Soviet Dissidents (Boston: Beacon Press, 1980). Rubio, Gonzalo, “Sumerian Literature” in Carl S. Ehrlich, From an vintage Land (New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2009). Saenger, Paul, area among phrases (Stanford, CA: Stanford college Press, 1997). Saerchinger, César, “Radio as a Political Instrument,” overseas Affairs 16:2.
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Legions, and who offered their land outright or whose other halves and youngsters misplaced it to debt.10 The latifundia lasted for hundreds of years, however the preliminary slave captives died off way more quick. Rome therefore required a continuing circulation of slaves to paintings such a lot of its farmland, and slave investors who provided the continuing wishes of this agricultural team its conquering legions. Nowhere is that this strategy larger defined, and extra appropriate to the tale of literacy, than within the Aegean sector. After.
Injunction from the booklet of Saint Matthew, “It is simpler for a camel to move throughout the eye of a needle than for somebody who's wealthy to go into the dominion of God,” carried way more freight than it does today.20 simply as striking to Vaudès used to be Jesus’s ultimate command from the booklet of Matthew, to “make disciples of all international locations . . . instructing them to obey every thing i've got commanded you.”21 those mandates made transparent to Vaudès his undertaking in lifestyles: to embody poverty and to unfold the literal fact.
at the start replied to the onslaught within the in simple terms manner it knew—through censorship, intimidation, and punishment. The aforementioned Georg the Bearded received as a lot of Luther’s New Testaments as he may well, for burning. a chain of Catholic proscription lists, edicts, and commissions didn't stanch the circulation; in 1527 Georg even had one unlucky printer, Hans Hergot of Nuremburg, positioned to the sword. In 1579 the Holy Roman Emperor eventually manage an Imperial ebook fee in Frankfurt. It, too, fell.