PROC SQL by Example: Using SQL within SAS
In PROC SQL through instance: utilizing SQL inside SAS, writer Howard Schreier illustrates using PROC SQL within the context of the SAS info step and different SAS methods (such as type, FREQ, capacity, precis, APPEND, DATASETS, and TRANSPOSE) whose performance overlaps and enhances that of SQL.
utilizing a side-by-side technique, this concise reference consultant comprises many generally defined examples displaying identical info step and SQL code, permitting SAS clients to use present SAS abilities and information whereas studying approximately SQL. Discussions conceal the variations among SQL and the information step in addition to events the place SQL and the knowledge step are used jointly to profit from the strengths of every.
subject matters addressed contain operating with joins and merges; utilizing subqueries; knowing set operators; utilizing the Macro Facility with PROC SQL; protecting tables; operating with perspectives; utilizing PROC SQL as a document generator; and extra.
this article is perfect for SAS programmers looking to upload PROC SQL to their SAS toolkits in addition to SQL programmers striving to raised combine the SAS information step and SQL.
Set Operators ninety eight 6.2 Set Operators: Preview ninety nine 6.3 Concatenation and Interleaving with OUTER UNION 104 6.4 information style Compatibility one hundred ten 6.5 assessment: UNION, INTERSECT, and other than 111 6.6 UNION 113 6.7 INTERSECT 123 6.8 other than 126 6.9 precis 129 within the past chapters, we explored SQL joins and subqueries at a few size. those are the main accepted units in SQL for combining information from a number of assets. even though, there's one other strategy. during this bankruptcy we soak up what are known as set.
while the information step’s SET assertion is used to concatenate or interleave info units, variables originating in numerous info units are aligned strictly via identify. the information step additionally lacks a mechanism for instantly doing away with variables that don't align. in its place, by means of default, all variables live to tell the tale, with lacking values coming up the place resource facts units don't provide values. All this is often in a different way of claiming, back, that the habit of the information step parallels that of PROC SQL’s OUTER UNION operator.
SAS methods provide shortcuts for working on units of variables, so that you can also use PROC ability with little hassle to accomplish these aggregations. PROC SQL is various; it has not anything similar to arrays and loops. for that reason, SQL has a robust bias for normalized constructions, and you'll find SQL recommendations a lot more straightforward to boost if you happen to arrange your info consequently. An instance of one of these normalized constitution is gifted in part 12.3. RDBMS background SQL involves SAS from the realm of.
Columns and construction of extra columns. The time period “feature” refers to indexes, integrity constraints, and audit trails; a similar subject is using iteration information units. Use of the endurance approach, and consequent reliance on desk upkeep features, is de facto no longer that universal. for those who examine SAS code awarded in papers at person meetings or in on-line postings, you're more likely to work out tables which are created and populated even as and not replaced for that reason.
a precise reproduction of the resource. Its objective is simply to demonstrate the mechanics of constructing an information set to comprise effects. To do an analogous factor with PROC SQL, we use the CREATE assertion: PROC SQL; CREATE desk new AS decide on * FROM preteen ; hand over; Chapter 2: simple construction Blocks 17 The decide upon assertion, which we used previous to exhibit facts, is now subordinated as a clause in the CREATE assertion. not anything is displayed; in its place the columns of the present desk (PRETEEN) are saved in a brand new.