Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section One, the Near [And] Mi)
Dietz Otto Edzard
it sort of feels secure to claim that this "Sumerian Grammar" by way of Professor D.O. Edzard becomes the recent vintage reference within the box. it really is an updated, trustworthy advisor to the language of the Sumerians, the inventors of cuneiform writing within the overdue 4th millennium B.C., and hence crucial individuals to the excessive cultural average of the entire of Mesopotamia and past. Following conventional strains, the "Grammar" describes basic features, origins, linguistic setting, phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, and phrasing. Due awareness is given to the symbiosis with Semitic Akkadian, with which Sumerian used to be to shape a veritable linguistic region. With lucid causes of all technical linguistic conception. each one transliteration incorporates its English translation.
*Anunnakù; the outdated Bab. shrunk shape Enukkù should be defined basically because the fabricated from -n(a)k- > -kk-, and never of *-nn(a)k- > -kk-. bùr (Akk. pùru) “(watertight) vessel” The query of Akkadian (Old Akk. and outdated Bab.) [o] and [ò] has been mentioned by means of Westenholz (see above 2.1 note). The life of an (original) diphthong [ay] in Sumerian should be inferred from the Hebrew mortgage kind of Akkadian èkallu (< é-gal): hè§al <*haykal (also Arabic haykal “temple, structure”). The Sumerian be aware for.
realized neighborhood of scribes. So, e.g., KU = dab5 (“to seize”) is glossed da-ab in Proto-Ea 19 (MSL 14, 30), yet di-ib in Ea I 156 (MSL 14, 184), yielding our transliteration díb. Cf. correspondingly, PA = sàg (“to strike”), glossed sà-ag in ProtoEa 490 (MSL 14, 51), yet s[i]-ig in Ea I 298 (MSL 14, 191). it isn't transparent to the writer how this variation of vowel took place. 3.1.2. Consonants while attempting to identify the (minimal) set of Sumerian consonantal phonemes, we'll once again base ourselves.
velocity, with all such common positive aspects as slurring, elision, assimilation, dissimilation. EDZARD_f5_23-27 4/28/03 2:40 PM web page 23 23 bankruptcy 4 THE “WORD” IN SUMERIAN, elements OF SPEECH we are going to attempt to deﬁne Sumerian components of speech now not via utilizing clas sical versions, yet by way of watching the morpho-syntactic behaviour of Sumerian “words”. 4.1. “W” A “word” in Sumerian is an entity that may express that means by itself with out whatever spoken sooner than or after. In é-“è “towards the house”, é.
rather than PN-“è (see above, Gudea Cyl. A ii 21–22), kiPN(-a(k))-ta “from (the position of ) PN” or in simple terms ki-PN, grew to become extra ordinary. right here, the inﬂuence of itti PN leqû is apparent. this transformation of syntax has a transparent parallel within the verb “to buy”, sa10/sa10-sa10, the place the vendor was once initially famous with the termi local, PN-“è, yet by means of Ur III instances with ki-PN(-a(k))-ta, or just kiPN; see J. Krecher, RIA five (1976–80) 496 r., and C. Wilcke, ibid. 505 r. edzard_f13_70-155/PDF 4/28/03 2:46 PM web page.
the way in which for noting syllables of the categories [V], [CV], [VC], [CVC]; see 2.2.1, style b. “Syllabaries” (= inventories of syllabograms) got here into being. a few syllabograms have been freely acceptable, i.e., they can happen in any place of a note (initial, medial, ﬁnal) while others have been of constrained use; é“ is principally used, in Ur III and early outdated Bab., to indicate the third p. pl. suﬃx on sure verbal types. notice: Neither Sumerian nor Akkadian syllabaries oﬀer a transparent 1 : 1 relation of indicators and.