The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor
Roger D. Woodard
This e-book, derived from the acclaimed Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's historic Languages, describes the traditional languages of Asia Minor, for the ease of scholars and experts operating in that region. every one bankruptcy of the paintings specializes in somebody language or, in a few cases, a collection of heavily comparable types of a language. supplying an entire descriptive presentation, every one of those chapters examines the writing system(s), phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon of that language, and areas the language inside of its right linguistic and old context. the quantity brings jointly a world array of students, every one a number one professional in historical language examine. whereas designed basically for students and scholars of linguistics, this paintings will end up necessary to all whose experiences take them into the area of historic language.
(with references) were mentioned above. either are illustrated within the sentences pointed out within the previous paragraph. Likewise awesome is the enclitic chain of Hittite and the opposite Anatolian languages, additionally mentioned above (see §§ 4.2.3, 4.4.4). because the incorporation into the chain of the innovated topic pronouns could recommend, the elaboration of those long chains of enclitic components, debris, and pronouns is itself a syntactic innovation outfitted on a lot smaller inherited beginnings.
My former colleague, Professor Bernard Comrie, now of the Max Planck Institute, for his unflagging friendship and aid. Kudos to those that masterfully translated the chapters that have been written in languages except English: Karine Megardoomian for Phrygian, Dr. Margaret Whatmough for Etruscan, Professor John Huehnergard for historic South Arabian. final of all, yet now not least of all, I desire to thank Katherine and Paul – my notion, my pleasure. Roger D. Woodard Christmas Eve 2002 xix c.
Of the Urartian kings are written within the Neo-Assyrian script and language (a dialect of Akkadian; see WAL Ch. 8), notwithstanding after a unmarried new release the Urartian language, for many reasons, changed using Assyrian. The 8th century BC witnessed the climax of Urartian energy and the best creation of Urartian royal inscriptions (the Annals of Argišti I and Sardure II). The time period Urartian is predicated at the geographical identify Urart.u, which used to be used not just by means of the Assyrians, yet by way of the.
verbs within the common curse formulation belongs the following: ú-ru- li -a-né . . . ú-lu- li -e “may they . . . him [and] damage [him].” The Urartian optative is presumed to be etymologically attached with the Hurrian shape (see Ch. nine, § 184.108.40.206). The optative on a regular basis appears to be like in clauses brought via ašə. This be aware is conventionally translated because the temporal conjunction “when(ever)”; it can, even if, comprise the ergative suffix -šə and hence fill the placement of the agent in an agent–patient.
Rendered as [-o] and [-a] respectively; this can be most likely a later improvement, however it might be famous that during a few Classical Armenian paradigms [-o] and [-a] derive synchronically from /-oy/ and /-ay/: evaluate the pronominal varieties k‘o “your” from /k‘oy/ (genitive k‘oyoy) and na “he, she, it” from /nay/ (written nayn with the enclitic sure article -n). The vocalism of Armenian is partially depending on the prosodic function of pressure. In Arme- nian the tension was once continually put on the.