The Languages of the Soviet Union (Cambridge Language Surveys)
A common account of the languages of the Soviet Union, essentially the most different multinational and multilingual states on the earth in addition to probably the most vital. There are a few one hundred thirty languages spoken within the USSR, belonging to 5 major households and varying from Russian, that is the 1st language of approximately 130,000,000 humans, to Aluet, spoken in simple terms via ninety six (in the 1970 census). Dr Comrie has common goals. First, he provides an important structural positive factors of those languages, their genetic relationships and class and their specific typological positive aspects. Secondly, he examines the social and political heritage to using functioning of a few of the languages in a multilingual nation. the amount may be of significance and curiosity to linguists and to these with a broader expert curiosity within the Soviet Union.
Perhapsnot greater than is shownby the languagesof the area as an entire. One phenomenonthat seemsto co-occurwith verb-linalword order in a good number of languagesis using nonfinite verbal types participles, nominalisations,verbaladverbs(gerunds)- instead of finite subordinateclauses, thelatterbeingthe norminmostEuropean languages, includingRussian. In Tatar,a Turkic language,for instance,theusualway ofsaying'themanwho went'is bar-ga, ,teie, actually '(the) having-goneman', the place bargan is.
Adverbialending(South Caucasian,North-West Caucasian). The cardinal systemis vigesimallybased,exceptin Lak, Dargva, and Archi, thoughin somesubdialects ofAvar, particularlyDurangi,asystembasedon unitsof ten is alsorecorded(eikobava and Cercvadze1962.2o3), as alsoin the Lashkhand higher Bal dialectsof Svan. The languages arealmostexclusively postpositional. Negationis by means of nomeanstreateduniformly.Adygesuffixes-(r):ip tothe positiveof its finite verbalforms,whilst rrfr- is placedb€forethe root.
Dagestanskixjazykov. Makhachkala. Boldyrev, B. V. 19'16.Kalegoija kosvennoj prinadleznosti v tunguso-man'C,urskixjazykax. Moscow, BSE. r95o-8; rgjo . Bol'laja sovetskajaenciklopedia. 2d. edn,5r vols.and 2 indexvols., Moscow. I95o-8. third edn, Moscow, r97o . (English translation: The grcat Soviet encyclopedia,3rd. edn long island. rg73-.) Budi4a Lazdila, T. 1966.TeachyourselfLatvian. London. glagolav darginskomjazyke. Byxovskaja,S.L. r938.Osobennostiupotreblenijaperexodnogo ln Pamjati N. l. a.. Marrc.
Plussome8o,oooin China and 25,oooin Afghanistan.Most of the SovietKirgiz, 88.5%,live within the Kirgiz S.S.R., wheretheyconstitute ofthepopulation, thelargest staff singleethnic 43.8'Zo within the republic; as well as Russians,the republic additionally has a sizableUzbek population(r r.3%,),and the Southerndialectsof Kirgiz havebeeninfluenced by means of Uzbek. just like the languagesof different Union Republics,Kirgiz is used along Russianin publicationsand educationat all levelsin Kirgizia. Kirgizia showsan.
Indo-Eurcpean languages t52 are being contractedin colloquial usage,so that lenbje 'board (LOC)' is being replacedby lentdj, staluose'tables(LOC)' through staluds, and dukterimi 'darghter (INSTR)'by dukrerlt. AlthoughLatvianstill hasa wealthy declensioral system,in ce ain respects it placesmore weighton prepositions than on inflections. therefore 'vtith Latvian usesthe instrumentalonly with the prepositionar, e.E.ar lepstu a withoutany prepositionin this spade',whereasLithuanianusesthe instrumental sense,.